Translational Psychiatry
Title: Cognitive And Immunological Effects Of Yoga Compared To Memory Training In Older Women At Risk For Alzheimer’s Disease
Published 14 February 2024. Journal: Translational Psychiatry, vol. 14, Article number: 96, 2024.
Grzenda, Adrienne.; Siddarth, Prabha.; Milillo, Michaela M.; Aguilar-Faustino, Yesenia.; Khalsa, Dharma S.; Lavretsky, Helen

DOI: 10.3233/JAD-230710

Conclusion: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Kundalini yoga training (KY) compared to memory enhancement training (MET) in older women with cerebrovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in terms of mood and cognitive functioning.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Use of Complementary and Integrative Medicine for Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive Decline
Published 07 December 2023. Journal: Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. Pre-press, no. Pre-press, pp. 1-18, 2023.
Nguyen, Sarah A.; Oughli, Hanadi Ajam; Lavretsky, Helen

DOI: 10.3233/JAD-230710

Conclusion: This review summarizes the existing evidence using complementary and integrative medicine therapies in cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. This includes the use of mind-body therapies, lifestyle interventions (nutritional, physical exercise, stress reduction), and other integrative modalities.


Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease

Title: Impact of Yoga Versus Memory Enhancement Training on Hippocampal Connectivity in Older Women at Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease
Published: 29 August 2023. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 149-159, 2023.
Kilpatrick, Lisa; Siddarth, Prabhaa; Krause-Sorio, Beatrixa; Milillo, Michaela; Aguilar-Faustino, Yeseniaa; Ercoli; Narr, Katherine; Khalsa, Dharma S.; Lavretsky, Helena.

DOI: 10.3233/JAD-221159

Open access article: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad221159

Conclusion: KY training may better target stress-related hippocampal connectivity, whereas MET may better target hippocampal sensory-integration supporting better memory reliability, in women with subjective memory decline and cardiovascular risk factors.

Title: The Role of Brain Integrity in the Association between Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Performance in Subjects with Increased Risk of Dementia.
Published August 8, 2023. Gerontology (2023) 69 (8): 972–985.
Anders Rydström; Ruth Stephen; Ingemar Kåreholt; Alexander Darin Mattsson; Tiia Ngandu; Jenni Lehtisalo; Lars Bäckman; Nina Kemppainen; Juha Rinne; Shireen Sindi; Hilkka Soininen; Ritva Vanninen; Alina Solomon; Francesca Mangialasche.


Open access article: https://karger.com/ger/article/69/8/972/836626

Conclusion: This study adds insights on the role brain integrity might play in the association between occupational complexity and cognitive performance. We showed that, among older individuals at risk for dementia identified through a validated dementia risk score, occupational complexity does not seem to provide resilience against neuropathology.

Journal: Current Psychiatric Reports
Title: Complementary and Integrative Medicine for Neurocognitive Disorders and Caregiver Health.
Published August 13, 2022
Nguyen, S.A., Oughli, H.A. & Lavretsky, H. Complementary and Integrative Medicine for Neurocognitive Disorders and Caregiver Health. Curr Psychiatry Rep 24, 469–480 (2022).


Open Access https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11920-022-01355-y

Conclusion: Overall, Complementary and Integrative Medicine therapies for older adults is a promising area of research, particularly as these interventions can be seen as a more preventative and oriented toward well-being and healthy aging.

Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Title: Dementia prevention: The potential long-term cost-effectiveness of the FINGER prevention program.
Published 16 July 2022. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 19(3), 999-1008.
Wimo, A., Handels, R., Antikainen, R., Eriksdotter, M., Jönsson, L., Knapp, M., … & Kivipelto, M.


Open access article: https://alz-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/alz.12698

Conclusion: The model suggests that programs like FINGER have the potential to be cost-effective for preventing dementia. The results at the individual level are rather modest, but the societal benefits may be substantial because the potential target population is large. Better modeling techniques are needed to integrate the complexity of prevention work, such as effects on dementia, but also on other (e.g., cardiovascular) conditions.

Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Title: Occupational complexity and cognition in the FINGER multidomain intervention trial.
Published 09 February 2022. Alzheimer’s Dement. 2022;18:2438–2447.Pages 2438-2447
Anders Rydström, Alexander Darin-Mattsson, Ingemar Kåreholt, Tiia Ngandu, Jenni Lehtisalo, Alina Solomon, Riitta Antikainen, Lars Bäckman, Tuomo Hänninen, Tiina Laatikainen, Esko Levälahti, Jaana Lindström, Teemu Paajanen, Satu Havulinna, Markku Peltonen, Shireen Sindi, Hilkka Soininen, Anna Stigsdotter Neely, Timo Strandberg, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Miia Kivipelto, Francesca Mangialasche


Open access article: https://alz-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/alz.12561

Conclusion: This study adds to an increasing body of work indicating that the FINGER model is beneficial to a considerable portion of the elderly population at risk for cognitive decline and dementia, including those with genetic risk factors for sporadic AD (APOE ε4) and lower educational attainment.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Yoga Prevents Gray Matter Atrophy in Women at Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Published 2022 Mar 11. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35275541. J Alzheimers Dis.
Krause-Sorio B, Siddarth P, Kilpatrick L, Milillo MM, Aguilar-Faustino Y, Ercoli L, Narr KL, Khalsa DS, Lavretsky H.
doi: 10.3233/JAD-215563.

Open access article: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad215563

Conclusion: We were able to demonstrate that three months of KY training, combined with a daily practice of KK, had protective effects on brain regions known to undergo age-related cortical decline and may lead to improvements in anxiety and depression in older women with subjective cognitive decline and CVRFs.

Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Title: The effect of adherence on cognition in a multidomain lifestyle intervention (FINGER).
Published 2021 October 20, 2021. Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, Korkki S, Solomon A, Coley N, Antikainen R, Bäckman L, Hänninen T, Lindström J, Laatikainen T, Paajanen T, Havulinna S, Peltonen M, Neely AS, Strandberg T, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Kivipelto M. Alzheimers Dement.
DOI 10.1002/alz.12492. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34668644.

Open access article: https://alz-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/DOI/epdf/10.1002/alz.12492

Journal of Internal Medicine
Title: How can dementia and disability be prevented in older adults: where are we today and where are we going?
Published June 2021, Journal of Internal Medicine 289(6):807-830.
Lisko I, Kulmala J, Annetorp M, Ngandu T, Mangialasche F, Kivipelto M.
DOI 10.1111/joim.13227. Epub 2021 Jan 10. PMID: 33314384; PMCID: PMC8248434.

Open access article: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/DOI/epdf/10.1111/joim.13227

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Spiritual Fitness: A New Dimension in Alzheimer’s Disease Prevention
Published 11 May 2021, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 80 (2021) 505–519
Dharma Singh Khalsa, Andrew B. Newberg
DOI 10.3233/JAD-201433

Open access article: https://bit.ly/3bLWKEg

Conclusion: A growing body of evidence finds that targeting lifestyle and vascular risk factors have a beneficial effect on overall cognitive performance. A new review in a concept in medicine that centers on psychological and spiritual wellbeing, and Kirtan Kriya, a simple 12-minute meditative practice, may reduce multiple risk factors for AD.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports
Title: Incorporating a Usual Care Comparator into a Study of Meditation and Music Listening for Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Feasibility Trial
Published 11 March 2021, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 187-206, 2021
Kim E. Innes, Caitlin Montgomery, Terry Kit Selfe, Sijinc Wen, Dharma Singh Khalsa, Madison Flick
DOI 10.3233/ADR-200249

Open access article: https://bit.ly/33zb6U4

Conclusion: Findings of this pilot feasibility trial suggest incorporation of an EUC program is feasible, and that participation in a simple 12-week relaxation program may be helpful for adults with SCD versus engagement in an EUC program.

Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Title: Quantifying dementia prevention potential in the FINGER randomized controlled trial using the LIBRA prevention index.
Published January 6, 2021, Alzheimer’s and Dementia 17(7):1205-1212.
Deckers K, Köhler S, Ngandu T, Antikainen R, Laatikainen T, Soininen H, Strandberg T, Verhey F, Kivipelto M, Solomon A.
DOI 10.1002/alz.12281. Epub 2021 Jan 6. PMID: 33403822; PMCID: PMC8359273.

Open access article: https://alz-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/DOI/epdf/10.1002/alz.12281

PLOS Medicine
Title: Cardiovascular health metrics from mid-to late-life and risk of dementia: A population-based cohort study in Finland
Published 15 December 2020. PLOS Medicine 17(12): e1003474.
Liang Y, Ngandu T, Laatikainen T, Soininen H, Tuomilehto J, Kivipelto M, et al.

Open access article: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003474

Conclusion: A long-term study of 1,449 people in Finland found that those who had better scores on standard metrics of cardiovascular health in midlife, especially for behavioral factors such as smoking, had a lower risk of dementia later in life.

The Journals of Gerontology: Series A
Title: Telomere length change in a multidomain lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive decline: a randomized clinical trial
Published 11 November 2020. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, glaa279.
Shireen Sindi, PhD, Alina Solomon, MD, PhD, Ingemar Kåreholt, PhD, Iiris Hovatta, PhD, Riitta Antikainen, MD, PhD, Tuomo Hänninen, PhD, Esko Levälahti, MSc, Tiina Laatikainen, MD, PhD, Jenni Lehtisalo, PhD, Jaana Lindström, PhD, Teemu Paajanen, MA Psy, Markku Peltonen, PhD, Dharma Singh Khalsa, MD, Benjamin Wolozin, PhD, Timo Strandberg, MD, PhD, Jaakko Tuomilehto, MD, PhD, Hilkka Soininen, MD, PhD, Tiia Ngandu, MD, PhD, Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, for the FINGER Study Group

Open access article: https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/gerona/glaa279/5974120

Conclusion: This is the first large Randomized Clinical Trial showing that a multidomain lifestyle intervention facilitated leukocyte telomere length (LTL) maintenance among sub-groups of elderly at-risk for dementia, including APOEε4 carriers. LTL maintenance was associated with more pronounced cognitive intervention benefits. Participants with better telomere integrity showed better cognitive benefits from the FINGER Study interventions, in particular regarding executive functioning, long-term memory and neuropsychological test battery.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: White Matter Changes on Diffusion Tensor Imaging in the FINGER Randomized Controlled Trial.
Published October 27, 2020, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 78(1):75-86.
Stephen R, Solomon A, Ngandu T, Levälahti E, Rinne JO, Kemppainen N, Parkkola R, Antikainen R, Strandberg T, Kivipelto M, Soininen H, Liu Y; FINGER study group.
DOI 10.3233/JAD-200423. PMID: 32925045; PMCID: PMC7683078.

Open access article: https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad200423

Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Title: World-Wide FINGERS Network: A global approach to risk reduction and prevention of dementia.
Published July 5, 2020, Alzheimer’s and Dementia 16(7):1078-1094.
Kivipelto M, Mangialasche F, Snyder HM, Allegri R, Andrieu S, Arai H, Baker L, Belleville S, Brodaty H, Brucki SM, Calandri I, Caramelli P, Chen C, Chertkow H, Chew E, Choi SH, Chowdhary N, Crivelli L, Torre R, Du Y, Dua T, Espeland M, Feldman HH, Hartmanis M, Hartmann T, Heffernan M, Henry CJ, Hong CH, Håkansson K, Iwatsubo T, Jeong JH, Jimenez-Maggiora G, Koo EH, Launer LJ, Lehtisalo J, Lopera F, Martínez-Lage P, Martins R, Middleton L, Molinuevo JL, Montero-Odasso M, Moon SY, Morales-Pérez K, Nitrini R, Nygaard HB, Park YK, Peltonen M, Qiu C, Quiroz YT, Raman R, Rao N, Ravindranath V, Rosenberg A, Sakurai T, Salinas RM, Scheltens P, Sevlever G, Soininen H, Sosa AL, Suemoto CK, Tainta-Cuezva M, Velilla L, Wang Y, Whitmer R, Xu X, Bain LJ, Solomon A, Ngandu T, Carrillo MC.
DOI 10.1002/alz.12123. Epub 2020 Jul 5. PMID: 32627328.

Open access article: https://alz-journals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/DOI/10.1002/alz.12123

Proceedings of International Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health
Title: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Meditation and Music Listening vs. Enhanced Usual Care for Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD): Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy.
Published April 28-May 1, Cleveland, OH (moved to online) Global Advances in Health and Medicine (epub 6/10/20). 
KE Innes, C Montgomery, S Wen, DS Khalsa, M Flick (2020)

MindRxiv Papers: Open archive for research on mind and contemplative practices
Title: Emotional and Cognitive Improvement with Kirtan Kriya Meditation: A Pilot Study for Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients in a Catalan Community.
Published December 27, 2019
Cañete, Toni, Gloria B. Boneu, Silvia Ramos, and Dharma S. Khalsa.

Open access article: https://mindrxiv.org/y6fku/

Conclusion: The KKM group improved their psycho-emotional and cognitive health compared to CTP group. The yoga class elevated the perception of wellbeing. Further randomized studies are needed with a larger sample of MCI-diagnosed adults.

The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease – JPAD
Title: Multidomain Interventions to Prevent Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Dementia: From FINGER to World-Wide FINGERS
Published online 10 October 2019
A. Rosenberg, F. Mangialasche, T. Ngandu, A. Solomon, M. Kivipelto

DOI: 10.14283/jpad.2019.41

Conclusion: The WW-FINGERS initiative facilitates international collaborations, provides a platform for testing multidomain strategies to prevent cognitive impairment and dementia, and aims at generating high-quality scientific evidence to support public health and clinical decision-making. Furthermore, the WW-FINGERS network can support the implementation of preventive strategies and translation of research findings into practice.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Self and Informant Memory Reports in FINGER: Associations with Two-Year Cognitive Change.
Published Summer 2019
Laura Vaskivuo, Laura Hokkanen, Tuomo Hänninen, Riitta Antikainen, Lars Bäckman, Tiina Laatikainen, Teemu Paajanen, Anna Stigsdotter-Neely, Timo Strandberg, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Hilkka Soininen, Miia Kivipelto,and Tiia Ngandu, Public Health Promotion Unit

DOI: : 10.3233/JAD-190133

Conclusion: Our results indicate that self-reported SMCs, measured with PRMQ, predict future cognitive change in several cognitive domains. By contrast, reports by informants were not linked to changes in cognition. Among cognitively healthy at-risk elderly individuals, the persons themselves observe more easily problems relevant for their future cognitive trajectories than their informants.

Title: Computer-based cognitive training for older adults: Determinants of adherence
Published 10 July 2019
Merita Turunen, Laura Hokkanen, Lars Backman, Anna Stigsdotter-Neely, Tuomo Hänninen, Teemu Paajanen, Hilkka Soininen, Miia Kivipelto, Tiia Ngandu

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219541

Conclusion: Results show that Computer-based Cognitive Training is feasible even in this older age group, but there were substantial between-person differences in degree of adherence.

Alzheimer’s & Dementia
Title: Adherence to multidomain interventions for dementia prevention: Data from the FINGER and MAPT trials.
Published 29 April 2019
Nicola Coley, Tiia Ngandu, Jenni Lehtisalo, Hilkka Soininen, Bruno Vellas, Edo Richardi, Miia Kivipelto, Sandrine Andrieu, for the HATICE, FINGER, and MAPT/ DSA groups2

DOI: 10.1016/j.jalz.2019.03.005

Conclusion: The development of interventions based on Internet or smartphone and the use of connected devices could decrease the burden of multidomain interventions, but they may not yet be universally acceptable in older populations, thus potentially compromising uptake and adher-
ence in some individuals, and further enhancing inequalities in access to prevention programs. Furthermore, face-to-face contact appears to be particularly important in older populations, both to facilitate intervention adherence and stimulate social interactions, which may be a valuable dementia prevention strategy. A more personalized approach to multidomain interventions could also be envisaged, in which participants could be offered interventions targeting their own specific risk factors, and extra motivational interventions could be included for individuals at most risk of nonadherence, notably smokers and those with depressive symptoms. Finally, it may be helpful to emphasize, particularly for those with low socioeconomic status, that lifestyle changes can be made without incurring major expenses.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognition: Longitudinal Associations in the FINGER Study
Published 8 April 2019
Heikki Pentikäinen, Kai Savonen, Tiia Ngandu, Alina Solomon, Pirjo Kovalainen, Teemu Paajanen, Riitta Antikainen H, Miia Kivipelto, Hilkka Soininen, and Rainer Rauramaa

DOI: 10.3233/JAD-180897

Conclusion: Cardio Respiratory Fitness was associated with executive functions and processing speed, and was related also to the overall cognitive function in participants who are representative of an important part of the general Finnish older population with several risk factors for dementia, but without pronounced cognitive impairment.

Alzheimer’s & Dementia
Title: Dietary changes and cognition over 2 years within a multidomain intervention trial—The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)
Published 4 December 2018
Jenni Lehtisalo, Esko Levälahti, Jaana Lindström, Tuomo Hänninen, Teemu Paajanen, Markku Peltonen, Riitta Antikainen, Tiina Laatikainen, Timo Strandberg, Hilkka Soininen Jaakko Tuomilehto, Miia Kivipelto, Tiia Ngandu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.10.001

Conclusion: Improvements in diet in old age appear beneficial especially for executive function. The clear protective effect of healthy baseline diet for the subsequent changes in cognition underlines the importance of healthy diet throughout life. Other studies clarifying the role of both long-term diet and dietary changes in older age would be of utmost importance.

Brain Neurology
Title: Brain amyloid load and its associations with cognition and vascular risk factors in FINGER Study.
Published in January 16 2018
Nina Kemppainen, MD, PhD, Jarkko Johansson, PhD, Jarmo Teuho, MSc, Riitta Parkkola, MD, PhD, Juho Joutsa, MD, PhD, Tiia Ngandu, MD, PhD, Alina Solomon, MD, PhD, Ruth Stephen, MSc, Yawu Liu, MD, Tuomo Hanninen, PhD, Teemu Paajanen, PhD, Tiina Laatikainen, MD, PhD, Hilkka Soininen, MD, PhD, Antti Jula, MD, PhD, Johanna Rokka, PhD, Eero Rissanen, MD, PhD, Tero Vahlberg, MSc, Julia Peltoniemi, BM, Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, Juha O. Rinne, MD, PhD.

DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004827

Conclusions: The high percentage of PiB-positive participants provides evidence of a successful recruitment process of the at-risk population in the main FINGER intervention trial. The results suggest a possible association between early brain amyloid accumulation and decline in executive functions. APOE e4 was clearly associated with amyloid positivity, but no other risk factor was found to be associated with positive PiB-PET.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Effects of Meditation and Music-Listening on Blood Biomarkers of Cellular Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: An Exploratory Randomized Clinical Trial.
Published November 2018
Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Brundage, Kathleen; Montgomery, Caitlin; Wen, Sijin; Kandati, Sahiti; Bowles, Hannah; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Huysmans, Zenzi

DOI: 10.3233/JAD-180164

Conclusion: Practice of simple mind-body therapies may alter plasma Aß levels, TL, and TA. Biomarker increases were associated with improvements in cognitive function, sleep, mood, and Quality Of Life, suggesting potential functional relationships.

Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association
Title: Dietary changes and cognition over 2 years within a multidomain intervention trial—The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)

Published November 2018
Jenni Lehtisalo, Esko Levälahti, Jaana Lindström, Tuomo Hänninen, Teemu Paajanen, Markku Peltonen, Riitta Antikainen, Tiina Laatikainen, Timo Strandberg, Hilkka Soininen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Miia Kivipelto, Tiia Ngandu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.10.001

Conclusion: We conclude that improvements in diet in old age appear beneficial especially for executive function. The clear protective effect of healthy baseline diet for the subsequent changes in cognition underlines the importance of healthy diet throughout life. Other studies clarifying the role of both long-term diet and dietary changes in older age would be of utmost importance.

Title: The Effect of a 2-Year Intervention Consisting of Diet, Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, and Monitoring of Vascular Risk on Chronic Morbidity—the FINGER Randomized Controlled Trial.
Published April 2018
Alessandra Marengoni, MD, PhD, Laura Fratiglioni, MD, PhD, Riitta Antikainen, MD, PhD, Tiina Laatikainen, MD, PhD, Jenni Lehtisalo, MSc, Markku Peltonen, MD, PhD, Hilkka Soininen, MD, PhD, Timo Strandberg, MD, PhD, Jaakko Tuomilehto, MD, PhD, Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD, Tiia Ngandu, MD, PhD
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2017.09.020

Conclusion: Findings from this randomized controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could reduce the risk of developing new chronic diseases in older people.

Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Title: Multidomain lifestyle intervention benefits a large elderly population at risk for cognitive decline and dementia regardless of baseline characteristics: The FINGER trial
Published March 2018
Rosenberg A., Ngandu T., Rusanen M., Antikainen R., Bäckman L., Havulinna S., Hänninen T., Laatikainen T., Lehtisalo J., Levälahti E., Lindström J., Paajanen T., Peltonen M., Soininen H., Stigsdotter-Neely A., Strandberg T., Tuomilehto J., Solomon A., Kivipelto M.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2017.09.006

Conclusion: The FINGER intervention was beneficial regardless of participants’ characteristics and can thus be implemented in a large elderly population at increased risk for dementia.

JAMA Neurology
Title: Effect of the Apolipoprotein E Genotype on Cognitive Change During a Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention. A Subgroup Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.
Published January 2018
Alina Solomon, MD, PhD; Heidi Turunen, BM; Tiia Ngandu, MD, PhD; Markku Peltonen, PhD; Esko Levälahti, MSc; Seppo Helisalmi, PhD; Riitta Antikainen, MD, PhD5; Lars Bäckman, PhD; Tuomo Hänninen, PhD; Antti Jula, MD, PhD; Tiina Laatikainen, MD, PhD; Jenni Lehtisalo, MSc; Jaana Lindström, PhD; Teemu Paajanen, MA, Psy; Satu Pajala, PhD; Anna Stigsdotter-Neely, PhD; Timo Strandberg, MD, PhD; Jaakko Tuomilehto, MD, PhD; Hilkka Soininen, MD, PhD; Miia Kivipelto, MD, PhD.


Conclusion: Healthy lifestyle changes may be beneficial for cognition in older at-risk individuals even in the presence of APOE-related genetic susceptibility to dementia. Whether such benefits are more pronounced in APOE e4 carriers compared with noncarriers should be further investigated. The findings also emphasize the importance of early prevention strategies that target multiple modifiable risk factors simultaneously.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Baseline Telomere Length and Effects of a Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention on Cognition: The FINGER Randomized Controlled Trial.
Published 14 August 2017
Sindi S., Ngandu T., Hovatta I.,Kåreholt I., Antikainen R., Hänninen T., Levälahti E., Laatikainen T., Lindström J., Paajanen T., Peltonen M., Khalsa DS., Wolozin B., Strandberg T., Tuomilehto J., Soininen H., Kivipelto M., Solomon A., FINGER study group.
DOI: 10.3233/JAD-170123

Conclusion: Baseline LTL modified the effects of a 2-year multidomain lifestyle intervention on changes in cognitive performance. The cognitive benefits of the FINGER intervention were more pronounced in people with shorter baseline LTL, particularly for executive functioning. Considering that short LTL has been associated with poor cognitive performance and dementia, it is very promising that the multidomain lifestyle intervention was especially beneficial among individuals with higher risk.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
Published 3 February 2017
Innes, Kim E., Selfe, Terry Kita, Khalsa, Dharma Singh, Kandati, Sahitia.
DOI: 10.3233/JAD-160867

Conclusion: Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

International Psychogeriatrics
Title: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Kundalini Yoga in Mild Cognitive Impairment
Published January 2017
Harris A. Eyre, Prabha Siddarth, Bianca Acevedo, Kathleen Van Dyk, Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie St. Cyr, Hongyu Yang, Dharma S. Khalsa and Helen Lavretsky. International Psychogeriatrics

DOI: 10.1017/S1041610216002155

Conclusion: The Kundalini Yoga group showed short- and long-term improvements in executive functioning as compared to Memory Enhancement Training (MET), and broader effects on depressed mood and resilience. This observation should be conirmed in future clinical trials of yoga intervention for treatment and prevention of cognitive decline.

Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
Title: The Neural Mechanisms of Meditative Practices: Novel Approaches for Healthy Aging.
Epub 18 October 2016
Acevedo, BP, Pospos, S, Lavretsky, H. Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports. 2016;3(4):328-339. DOI: 10.1007/s40473-016-0098-x
Conclusion: This review suggests that mind-body practices can target different brain systems that are involved in the regulation of attention, emotional control, mood, and executive cognition that can be used to treat or prevent mood and cognitive disorders of aging, such as depression and caregiver stress, or serve as “brain fitness” exercise. Benefits may include improving brain functional connectivity in brain systems that generally degenerate with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other aging-related diseases.

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Title: Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Plasticity Following Memory Training and Yoga Interventions in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Published 21 November 2016
Hongyu Yang, Amber M. Leaver, Prabha Siddarth Pattharee Paholpak, Linda Ercoli, Natalie M. St. Cyr, Harris A. Eyre, Katherine L. Narr, Dharma S. Khalsa and Helen Lavretsky. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.

Conclusion: Memory training over 3 months is associated with decreased choline levels in bilateral hippocampus and increased gray-matter volume in dACC, suggesting that behavioral interventions like MET may ameliorate markers of brain aging. These effects are somewhat modest, and would benefit from independent validation in larger samples and perhaps over longer-duration interventions. However, these findings suggest that engaging in cognitive activities and mind-body practices may affect the brain in positive ways, and may be combined as part of a multi-faceted approach to encourage healthy aging.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Changes in Neural Connectivity and Memory Following a Yoga Intervention for Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Published in May 2016
Eyre, Harris A., Acevedo, Bianca. Yang, Hongyu, Siddarth, Prabha, Van Dyk, Kathleen, Ercoli, Linda, Leaver, Amber M., Cyr, Natalie St., Narr, Katherine, Baune, Bernhard T., Khalsa, Dharma S., Lavretsky, Helen. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 673-684, 2016
DOI: 10.3233/JAD-150653

Conclusion: Yoga may be as effective as MET in improving functional connectivity in relation to verbal memory performance. These findings should be confirmed in larger prospective studies.

Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Title: A randomized controlled trial of two simple mind-body programs,
Kirtan Kriya meditation and music listening, for adults with subjective
cognitive decline: Feasibility and acceptability
Available online 5 March 2016
Kim E. Innes, Terry Kit Selfe, Dharma Singh Khalsa, Sahiti Kandati. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 26 (2016) 98–107

Conclusion: Findings of this RCT of a beginner meditation practice and a simple ML program suggest that both programs were well accepted and the practices are feasible in adults with early memory loss.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Effects of Meditation versus Music Listening on Perceived Stress, Mood, Sleep, and Quality of Life in Adults with Early Memory Loss: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
Published online 8 April 2016
Kim Innes, Terry Kit Selfe, Dharma Singh Khalsa, Sahitia Kandati, Journal: Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. Preprint, no. Preprint, pp. 1-22, 2016
DOI: 10.3233/JAD-151106

Conclusion: Findings suggest that practice of a simple meditation or ML program may improve stress, mood, well-being, sleep, and QOL in adults with SCD, with benefits sustained at 6 months and gains that were particularly pronounced in the KK group.

Alternative and Complementary Therapies
Title: Integrative Therapies Essential for Addressing the Alzheimer’s Crisis: Foundation Awards $200,000 Grant to the University of New Mexico’s Section of Integrative Medicine
Moderator:, Hart Jane. Contributors:, Khalsa Dharma Singh, Prasad Arti, and Knoefel Janice.
Published Online Ahead of Print: January 20, 2016
February 2016, 22(1): 33-36. doi:10.1089/act.2015.29040.kpk.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Stress, Meditation, and Alzheimer’s Disease Prevention: Where the Evidence Stands
Dharma Singh Khalsa. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 48 (2015) 1-12 doi: 10.3233/JAD-142766
Published in July 2015
To read the entire article http://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad142766

Conclusion: Research suggests that KK enhances memory and reduces AD risk by improving sleep, decreasing depression, increasing well-being, down regulating inflammatory genes, upregulating immune system genes, improving insulin and glucose metabolism, and increasing telomerase by 43%; the largest ever recorded.

The Lancet
Title: A 2 year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomised controlled trial
Tiia Ngandu, Jenni Lehtisalo, Alina Solomon, Miia Kivipelto, et al.
Published online at thelancet.com on March 12, 2015

Conclusion: Findings from this large, long-term, randomised controlled trial suggest that a multidomain intervention could improve or maintain cognitive functioning in at-risk elderly people from the general population.

Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Title: Interactive balance training integrating sensor-based visual feedback of movement performance: a pilot study in older adults
Michael Schwenk, Gurtej S Grewal, Bahareh Honarvar, Stefanie Schwenk, Jane Mohler, Dharma S Khalsa and Bijan Najafi. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2014, 11:164 doi:10.1186/1743-0003-11-164
Published: 13 December 2014

Conclusion: Results of this proof-of-concept study suggest that older adults at risk of falling can benefit from the balance training program. Study findings may help to inform future exercise interventions integrating wearable sensors for guided game-based training in home- and community environments. Future studies should evaluate the added value of the proposed sensor-based training paradigm compared to traditional balance training programs and commercial exergames.

Advances in Mind Body Medicine
Title: The Pillars of Alzheimer’s Prevention
Khalsa, DS, Gustafson, C.
2014 Summer;28(3):26-32.
Published Summer 2014

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Title: Effect of Meditation on Cognitive Functions in Context of Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases
Rafal Marciniak, Katerina Sheardova, Pavla Cermáková, Daniel Hudecek, Rastislav Šumec and Jakub Hort
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2014
Published 27 January 2014

Conclusion: The results imply a positive effect especially on attention, memory, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility. Meditation can represent an appropriate non-pharmacological intervention aiming at the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly.

Arizona Geriatrics Society Journal
Title: Kirtan Kriya Yoga Meditation: A New Dimension in Alzheimer’s Prevention
Khalsa, DS.
Arizona Geriatrics Society Journal. 2013; 18(2):12-16
Published October 2013

NIH Public Access, Author Manuscript
Title: Stress, Inflammation and Aging
Helen Lavretsky and Paul A. Newhouse.
Published September 1, 2013.

Biochemical Pharmacology
Title: Future directions in Alzheimer’s disease from risk factors to prevention.
Imtiaz B, Tolppanen AM, Kivipelto M, Soininen H. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Apr 15;88(4):661-70. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2014.01.003. Epub 2014 Jan 10.
Published January 2013

Alzheimer’s & Dementia
Title: The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER): Study design and progress.
Kivipelto M, Solomon A, Ahtiluoto S, Ngandu T, Lehtisalo J, et al. Alzheimers Dement. 2013 Jan 16. pii: S1552-5260(12)02523-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2012.09.012. [Epub ahead of print]
Published in January 2013

Aging Health
Title: A Pilot Study On The Effects Of Meditation On Regional Brain Metabolism In Distressed Dementia Caregivers
Kelsey L Pomykala, Daniel HS Silverman, Cheri L Geist, Patricia Voege, Prabha Siddarth, Nora Nazarian,Natalie M St Cyr, Dharma S Khalsa & Helen Lavretsky Aging Health Aging Health, October 2012, Vol. 8, No. 5, Pages 509-516 , DOI 10.2217/ahe.12.46 (doi:10.2217/ahe.12.46)
Published in October 2012

Conclusion: Meditation practice in distressed caregivers resulted in different patterns of regional cerebral metabolism from relaxation. These pilot results should be replicated in a larger study.

Title: Yogic Meditation Reverses NF-Kb And IRF-Related Transcriptome Dynamics In Leukocytes Of Family Dementia Caregivers In A Randomized Controlled Trial
Black DS, Cole SW, Irwin MR, Breen E, St Cyr NM, Nazarian N, Khalsa DS, Lavretsky H. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012 Jul 13. [Epub ahead of print]
Published in July 2012

Conclusion: A brief daily yogic meditation intervention may reverse the pattern of increased NF-Kb-related transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased IRF1-related transcription of innate antiviral response genes previously observed in healthy individuals confronting a significant life stressor.

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Title: A Pilot Study of Yogic Meditation for Family Dementia Caregivers with Depressive Symptoms: Effects on Mental Health, Cognition, and Telomerase Activity
Lavretsky H, Epel ES, Siddarth P, Nazarian N, Cyr NS, Khalsa DS, Lin J, Blackburn E, Irwin MR. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;28(1):57-65. doi: 10.1002/gps.3790. Epub 2012 Mar 11.
Published in March 2012

Conclusion: This pilot study found that brief daily meditation practices by family dementia caregivers can lead to improved mental and cognitive functioning and lower levels of depressive symptoms. This improvement is accompanied by an increase in telomerase activity suggesting improvement in stress-induced cellular aging. These results need to be confirmed in a larger sample.

Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Title: Effects of An 8-Week Meditation Program on Mood and Anxiety in Patients With Memory Loss
Moss AS, Wintering N, Roggenkamp H, Khalsa DS, Waldman MR, Monti D, Newberg AB. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Jan;18(1):48-53. doi: 10.1089/acm.2011.0051.
Published in January 2012

Conclusion: An 8-week, 12 minute a day meditation program in patients with memory loss was associated with positive changes in mood, anxiety, and other neuropsychologic parameters, and these changes correlated with changes in CBF. A larger-scale study is needed to confirm these findings and better elucidate mechanisms of change.

Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
Title: Cerebral Blood Flow Changes Associated with Different Meditation Practices and Perceived Depth Of Meditation
Wang DJ, Rao H, Korczykowski M, Wintering N, Pluta J, Khalsa DS, Newberg AB. Psychiatry Res. 2011 Jan 30;191(1):60-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.09.011. Epub 2010 Dec 8.
Published in December 2010

Conclusion: This study revealed changes in the brain during two different meditation practices in the same individuals and that these changes correlated with the subjective experiences of the practitioners.

Consciousness and Cognition
Title: Cerebral Blood Flow Differences Between Long-Term Meditators and Non-Meditators
Newberg AB, Wintering N, Waldman MR, Amen D, Khalsa DS, Alavi A. Conscious Cogn. 2010 Dec;19(4):899-905. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2010.05.003. Epub 2010 Jun 8.
Published in May 2010

Conclusion: The study was set to determine if there are differences in baseline brain function of experienced meditators compared to non-meditators. The observed changes associated with long-term meditation appear in structures that underlie the attention network and also those that relate to emotion and autonomic function.

Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Title: Meditation Effects on Cognitive Function and Cerebral Blood Flow in Subjects with Memory Loss: A Preliminary Study
Newberg AB, Wintering N, Khalsa DS, Roggenkamp H, Waldman MR. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20(2):517-26. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2010-1391.
Published in April 2010

Conclusion: This preliminary study determined if subjects with memory loss problems demonstrate changes in memory and cerebral blood flow (CBF) after a simple 8-week meditation program. The meditation program resulted in significant increases in baseline CBF ratios in the prefrontal, superior frontal, and superior parietal cortices. Scores on neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency, Trails B, and logical memory showed improvements after training.

Nuclear Medicine Communications
Title: Cerebral Blood Flow Changes During Chanting Meditation
Khalsa DS, Amen D, Hanks C, Money N, Newberg A. Nucl Med Commun. 2009 Dec;30(12):956-61. doi: 10.1097/MNM.0b013e32832fa26c.
Published in June 2009

Conclusion: The results offer evidence that this form of meditation practice is associated with changes in brain function in a way that is consistent with earlier studies of related types of meditation as well as with the positive clinical outcomes anecdotally reported by its users.

Journal of Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Title: Integrated medicine and the prevention and reversal of memory loss.
Khalsa DS. Journal of Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
1998 Nov;4(6):38-43.
Published in November 1998

Conclusion: Findings suggest that memory loss is not an inevitable consequence of aging and that Alzheimer’s disease can be prevented and reversed using an integrated medical approach.

Journal of Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Title: An Alternative Medical Program Is Effective in Patients with Cognitive Decline
Khalsa, DS. Journal of Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
1997 Vol 3, No. 4, Page 94

Proceedings of the Interstate Postgraduate Medical Association of North America Assembly
Stress-related illness. Where the evidence stands
Khalsa, DS. Interstate Postgraduate Medical Association of North America
1985 Nov 1;78(6):217-21.

The Alzheimer’s Research and Prevention Foundation’s Dr. Khalsa has also contributed to numerous books on Alzheimer’s Disease. See a list on our Book Chapters page.

Eating From Our Roots for Brain Power

July 18th, 2024 • 4 pm PT / 7 pm ET

Duration: 60 minutes

Speaker: Maya Feller, MS, RD, CDN